Mosquitoes are bothersome, swarming, hitting insects, and some are carriers of malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, filariasis, and encephalomyelitis. Mosquitoes can be distinguished from other Diptera by their delicate, small look. Females have elongated mouth parts and a different proboscis well suited for piercing and sucking blood. Scales are found along the wing veins and along the lower wing margins.
The sexes can be distinguished by the antennae: in females they’re long and slim with a few short hairs; in the male they’re feathery and plumose. The venation of the wings is also characteristic for mosquitoes and is useful in species identification. Mosquitoes are especially attracted to animals and man, especially to bright light and dark-colored clothes. The females are the blood suckers and can’t produce fertile eggs without ingesting blood. It’s postulated that the blood provides the serotonin and epinephrine required for creation of gonadotropic hormone from the mosquito, required for ovulation. These then metamorphose into adults.
1. Mechanical methods
Wire screens for doors and windows. Mosquito nets. Animal barrier: Putting farm animals between the breeding areas and human habitations would disagree mosquitoes (especially zoophilic) from biting man.
Changing the environment in order to become unsuitable for the mosquitoe eg, drainage or filling of the breeding area. Shifting of water level, water present, PH.
3. Biological Procedures
Introduction of a natural enemy (predator): a fish (Gambusia affinis) feed on larvae and pupae; release of sterilized males (X-ray or chemical agents) which compete with men in character, mating with females. And leading to decrease of the forth coming generation.
Used those against adults (adulticides). Insecticides act on contact being absorbed through the cuticle (contact toxin ). These are applied as distance spray with an insecticide, which induces immediate knockdown of mosquitoes eg. And also by remaining spray of resting places of adults (walls0 with an insecticide of extended action (residual insecticide) eg, hydrocarbons like DDT and Gammaxane, Organophosphorous compounds as Malathion and Diphterex, carbamates as sevin. The dvelopment of immunity is a drawback of insecticides
Specific agents can be implemented against aquatic phases. These representatives are employed to water surfaces. Pupae aren’t affected, since they don’t feed. Respiratory toxin: employing non-volatile oils suffocates larvae and pupae by blocking the respiratory spiracles. Residual insecticides are sprayed water mixed with oil or dust. They exert their effect by ingestion and contact. Virtually no single method alone is effective in control. The joint use of two or more methods (integrated controller ) would offer a much higher and more efficient level of abatement. Insects escaped method, are murdered by other.