Mosquitoes are annoying, swarming, hitting insects, and some are carriers of malaria, yellow fever, dengue fever, filariasis, and encephalomyelitis. Mosquitoes can be distinguished from other Diptera by their fragile, small look. Females have elongated mouth parts and a distinct proboscis well suited for piercing and sucking blood. Scales are found along the wing veins and along the lower wing margins.
The sexes can be distinguished by the antennae: in females they are long and slender with a few short hairs; in the male they are feathery and plumose. Close examination shows the antennae to be composed of 14 to 15 segments. The venation of the wings is also characteristic for mosquitoes and is useful in species identification. Mosquitoes are particularly attracted to man and animals, especially to bright light and dark-colored clothes. The females are the blood suckers and can’t produce fertile eggs without ingesting blood. It is postulated that the blood supplies the serotonin and epinephrine required for creation of gonadotropic hormone from the mosquito, required for ovulation. These then metamorphose into adults.
1. Mechanical methods
Wire screens for doors and windows. Mosquito nets. Animal barrier: Placing farm animals between the breeding places and human habitations would deviate mosquitoes (particularly zoophilic) from biting man.
2. Natural or physical methods (ecological interference)
Changing the environment in order to become unsuitable for the mosquitoe eg, filling or drainage of the breeding area. Developing of hade if larvae require sunshine and vice versa. Changing of water level, water present, PH.
3. Biological Procedures
Introduction of a natural enemy (predator): a fish (Gambusia affinis) feed on larvae and pupae; release of sterilized males (X-ray or chemical agents) which compete with men in nature, mating with females. And resulting in decrease of the forth coming generation.
4. Chemical methods (insecticides)
Used those against adults (adulticides). Insecticides act on contact being absorbed through the cuticle (contact toxin ). These are applied as space spray with an insecticide, which causes immediate knockdown of mosquitoes eg. And also by remaining spray of resting places of adults (walls0 using an insecticide of extended action (residual insecticide) eg, hydrocarbons like DDT and Gammaxane, Organophosphorous compounds as Malathion and Diphterex, carbamates as sevin. The dvelopment of resistance is a drawback of insecticides
Specific agents can be implemented against aquatic stages. These representatives are applied to water surfaces. Pupae aren’t affected, as they don’t feed. Respiratory toxin: applying non-volatile oils suffocates larvae and pupae by blocking the respiratory spiracles. Residual insecticides are sprayed on water mixed with oil or dust. They exert their effect by contact and ingestion. Virtually no single method alone is effective in control. The joint use of two or more methods (integrated control) would offer a higher and more efficient level of abatement. Insects escaped on method, are murdered by other.